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Mountain Landscape

The research essential for his published articles and books, combined with additional study and analysis required for individual state classes, has given Kris a broad knowledge base that spans the nation. Unusual problems encountered during court disputes in several jurisdictions provided additional impetus to expand his expertise.


It is imperative to understand the distinction between concepts that are broadly accepted in most courts and more difficult situations where precedent is confused or conflicting. Confusion may arise within a single jurisdiction based on conflicting precedent within the state. Alternatively, it may result from unusual precedent within a single state that runs contrary to most other states.


Kris has spent years studying these variations but also recognizes that there is always more to learn, both in fields or courts not yet studied but also in the real possibility that additional legitimate precedent can arise at any time.


Areas of Study, Teaching, and Consulting


Adverse Possession

Claims Against the State

Claims Against Railroads

Color of Title

Common Law Requirements

Effect of a Survey

Mistaken Belief

Statutory Requirements


Boundary Line Agreements

Conditional Boundary Lines

Consentable Boundary Lines

Courtroom Preparation

Doctrine of Merger—Effect on Boundaries



Acceptance—Implied vs. Express

Castle Associates Rule

Cessation of Purpose

Common Scheme Doctrine

Custom as a source of easements

Dedication—Implied vs. Express

Discontinuance of Maintenance
(Public Ways)

Doctrine of Merger—Effect on Easements

Easement by Necessity

Extinguishment by Notice and Race/Notice Statutes

Estoppel and Easements

Frustration of Purpose

Implied Easements

Overburden of Existing Easement

Part Performance & Easements

Practical Location of Easements

Prescriptive Easements

Public Utility Easements


Railroad Easements

Reciprocal Servitudes/Restrictions



Intent of the Parties—Deed Interpretation

Lost Grant Theory

Mineral Estates

Original Footsteps—Retracement

Parol Agreement

Practical Location of Boundaries

Railroad Retracement

Riparian and Littoral Issues

Littoral Boundaries (Lakes, Bays, Ocean)

Public Trust Doctrine

Right to Navigate

Riparian Boundaries (Rivers)

Strip and Gore Doctrine

Rules of Construction

Slander of Title

State and Federal Boundaries

Statute of Frauds

Taking Clause

Tax Maps

Water – Surface Flow/Drainage

         Common Law Rule

         Civil Law Rule

         Reasonable Use Doctrine

Valuation Maps (Railroads)


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